Sunday, January 13, 2019

Pratispardha Mein Vradhi | Increase In Competition

Bahrtiy bajar bahut hi pratispardhatmak ho gaye hain. Bharat mein gharelu va videshi pratispardha mein bahut adhik vradhi hui hai. Bahurashtriy companiyon ke svatantr pravesh se gharelu vyavsayik ikaiyon ko videshi companiyon se atyadhik pratispardha ka samana karna pad raha hai. Bharat mein ab bade shoppin malls aam dekhne ko milte hain. Chhoti vyavsayik ikaiyon ko badi deshi va videshi vyavsayik ikaiyon se pratispardha ka samana karna pad raha hai.

Videshi nivesh mein vradhi: videshi nivesh se tatpary videshi niveshakon dwara bhartiy companiyon ke anshon, ran patron, bondon aadi mein nivesh se hai. Bhartiy sarkar ka videshi nivesh ke prati udar drashtikon hone se bharat mein videshi nivesh ke antarpravah mein bahut vradhi hui hai. Isse bharat ke poonji nirman va bhugtan shesh sthiti mein bhi sudhar aaya hai.

Seva shetr mein teji se vikas: pichhale kuchh varshon mein bharat mein seva shetr mein bahut adhik vikas hua hai. Vartman mein rashtry aay mein aadhe se bhi adhik yogdan seva shetr ka hai. Seva shetr mein banking, beema, doorsanchar, parvahan, ware housing, paryatan, svasthy, shiksha, salah sevayein, vyavsay sambandhi prakriyaon ko bahri stroton se karvana aadi shamil hai. Bharat ke seva shetr mein atyadhik vikas se any deshon mein bharat ki chhavi mein kaafi sudhar aaya hai.

Videshi vyapar mein vradhi: pichhale kuchh varshon mein bahrat ke videshi vyapar mein bahut adhik vradhi hui hai. Vishw vyapar sangathan ka sadasy hone ke karan bharat ne videshi vyapar mein tairif va gair tairif badhaon ko kam kiya hai. Isse videshi vyapar ko bhadava mila hai.

Jeevan star mein sudhar: pichhale kuchh varshon mein bharat mein madhy aay varg mein abhut adhik vradhi hui hai. Ab gramin vyakti bhi jeevan star ke bare mein sachet ho gaye hain. Isse tikao upbhokta utpadon jaise television, refrigerator, computer, mobile phone, air conditioner, car aadi ki maang mein bahut adhik vradhi hui hai. Ab bahut si deshi va videshi companiyan tikao upbhokta utpad banana mein sanlagn hai.

Videshi ranon mein kami: vartman mein hbarat mein videshi mudra bhandar mein vradhi ho rahi hai. Ab bharat sarkar naye videshi ran nahi leti, balki purane videshi ranon ko vapis kar rahi hai.


Vaishwik mandi ke karan bhartiy arthvyavastha ki vikas dar mein kami ke baad sudhar: varsh 2008-09 tatha 2009-10 mein mukhy viksit deshon ki arthvyavastha mein vyapak vitty sankat aane se unki viaks dark am ho gayi hai. Vaishwik mandi ke karan vikas dar mein aayi kami ne bharat ke niryat shetr ko bhi kuprabhavit kiya hai. Isse bahrat mein videshi nivesh ke antarpravah mein kami aayi hai. Rojgar avsaron mein bhi kami aayi hai. Poonji bajaron par bahut bura prabhav pada hai. Gharelu arthvyavastha mein poonji va upbhog ki vastuon ki maang mein bahut kami aayi hai. In sabse vyavsayik ikaiyon par bahut bura prabhav pada hai. Parantu ab vaishwik arthvyavastha, vaishwik mandi ke doore se dheer dheere bahar aa rahi hai. Varsh 2010-11 mein sakal gharelu utpad mein 8.6% ki dar se vradhi hui hai. Varsh 2011-12 mein bhi gdp 9% vikas dark i ummind hai. Isse spasht hai ki bahrtiy arthvyavastha vaishwik mandi ke kuprabhav se bahar nikalkar teevr gati se vikas ki or bhad rahi hai. 

Monday, November 12, 2018

Vyavsay Ka Arthik Paryavaran | Financial Environment

Arthik vatavaran vyavsay ko bahut adhik prabhavit karta hai. Isme mukhytah teen ghatakon ko sammilit kiya jaata hai desh mein vidyaman arthik dashayein, desh ki arthik neetiayn tatha desh ki arthik pranali.

Arthik dashayein: kisi bhi desh ki arthik dashayein jaise prakartik sansadhan, manviy sansadhan, arthik vikas ka star, rashtriy utpadan, bajar ka aakar, desh ka aadharbhoot dhancha, poonji aadi us desh ki arthik pragati ka soochak maani jaati hai. Desh ki arthik viaks ki avastha hi gharely bajar ka aakar nirdharit karti hai. Desh mein logon ke upbhog star,a ay rojgar, bachat aadi ke aadhar par hi vyavsay apne vikas evam vistar, naye utpadon ki shuruat, vugyapan, naye bajaron ki khoj, nayi utpad abhikalpanayein aadi ke bare mein yojanayein evam karykram tiayar karta hai. Is prakar desh mein vidhyaman arthik dashayein vyavsay ko kaafi had tak prabhavit karti hai.

Vyavsay Ka Arthik Paryavaran


Desh ki arthik neetiyan: kisi desh ki arthik neetiyan jaise audhyogik neeti, modrik neeti, rajkoshiy neeti, vyapar neeti aadi bhi desh mein vyavsay, udhyog evam arthik kriyaon ko bahut adhik prabhavit karti hai. Audhyogik neeti desh mein udhyogon ki sthapana tatha karypranali ke liye margdarshan pradan karti hai. Prathmikta prapt shetron mein udhyogon ko anek prakar ke protsahan diye jate hain jabki kam prathmikata vale udhoyong ko kathinaiyon ka saman karna padta hai. Sarkar dwara yadi videshi vyapar mein sanrakshan ki neeti panayi jaati ai to isse gharelu udhyogon ko laabh milata hai. Vahin udar aayat neeti gharelu udhoyon ke liye hanikaran sidhh ho sakti hai. Atah arthik neetiyon ka vyavsayik sambhavnaon par bahut adhi prabhav padta hai.

Arthik pranali: kisi bhi desh ki arthik rpanali us desh ki arthik vichardahar, arthik sanrachana tatha arthik khulepan ko pradarshit karti hai, arthik pranali pramukh roopp se teen prakar ki hoti hai poonjiwadi, samajwadi tatha mishrit arthik pranali. Poonjiwadi pranali mein utpadan ke sadhanon par niji svamitv hota hai tatha arthik kiryaon ka sanchalan tatha niyaman laabh ki prerana se poonjipatiyon dwara kiya jaata hai. Is pranali mein arthik kriyaon par sarkar ka bahut kam hastshep rahta hai. Samajwadi pranali mein utpadan ke sadhanon par rajy ka niyantran evam svamitv rahta hai. Isme rashtr ki prathmiktaon ke anuroop hi utpadean kary sanchalit kiya jaata hai. Mishirt arthik pranali mein sarvjanik shetr evam niji shetr ka sahastitv hota hai, is pranali mein dohare bajar ki sthiti paayi jaati hai arthat kuchh vastuon ki keemate to bajar mein maang tatah poorti ke aadhar par nirdharti hoti hai jabki kuchh vaston par sarkar rationing tatha niyantran rakhti hai. Atah desh ki arthik pranali ke aadhar par hi vyavsay ke aakar vikas tatha vistar ki sambhavnayein aadhirit hoti hai.

Anarthik vatavaran ke vyavsay par prabhav : arthik vatavaran ki tarah anarthik vatavaran bhi vyavsay ko bahut adhik prabhavit karta hai. Anarthik vatavaran mein takneeki, janankiy, samajik, sanskritik, prakarti, rajnaitik tatha antarrashtriy tatv sammilit kiye jaate hain. In sabhi tatvon ka vyavsay par gahra prabhav padta hai.

Vyavsayik paryavaran gatisheel hota hai tatha usme nirantar parivaratan hote rahte hain. Bharat ke vyavsayik paryavaran mein bhi nirantar parivartan hote rahte hain. Svatantra prapti ke pashchat san 1948 mein bharat mein pratham audhyogik neeti ki ghosahan ki gayi thi jisme sarvjanik shetr ko pramukhta di gayi. Gharelu udhoyogon ko prtosahit karne ke liye sanrakshan ki neeti apnayi gayi. Arthvyavastha mein vibhinn prkar ke niyantra jaise muly niyantran, licensing, aayat pratibandh, kota adi deskhne ko milte the. Parnaamsvaroop desh ka vanchit arthik vikas nahi ho paaya.


Varsh 1991 mein bharat ki arthik sthiti nirashjanak thi. Desh mein videshi mudra bhandar ki kami, bhugtan asuntalan, bhadata hua rajkoshiy ghata aadi samasyaon ke karan bhartiy arthvyavastha buri tarah ladkhada gayi. Atah varsh 1991 se bharat mein arthik sudharon ki prakriya prarambh ki gayi jisse bharti vyavsayik paryavaran mein mahatvpoorn parivartan aaye. Nayi arthik neeti mein sarvjanik shetr ke mahatv ko kam karte hue niji shetr ko adhik bhadava diya gya hai. Aayat karon mein kami, rpatyaksh videshi nivesh ko protsahan, poonji bajar ka udarikaran, arthik sahayata mein kami aadi ke karan sanrakshit va niyamit arthvyavastha ne ab khuli va pratispardhi arthvyavastha ka roop se liye hai. Isi karan bhartiy prabandhakon ko ab nayi nayi chunotiyon ka saman karna pad raha hai. Is badle hue vatavaan mein keval vahi jeevit rah sakenge jinme pratispardha karne ki shamta hogi. 

Bharat Ke Vyavsayik Paryavaran Par Lekh | Indian Business Environment

Nayi arthik neeti ki ghosahan 1991 mein ki gayi thi jisme mukhy roop se udarikaran, nijikaran, vaishwikaran par jor diya gya. 1991 se poor arthik vikas ke liye sarvjanik shetr ko mukhy bhoomika di gayi thi tatha niji shetr par vibhinn tarah ke niyantran lagaye gaye the. Parantu sarvjanik shetr nokarshahi, lalfeetashahi, atyadhik staff, pahal bhavna ki kami aadi ke karanvanchhit parinam prapt nahi kar saka. Is sabka parinam yah hua ki 1991 mein desh mein abhootpoorv arthik sankat utpann ho gaya. Arthvyavastha ko arthik sankat se nikalane or use teji se nirantar vikas ke marg par punah lane kel iye ek uchit arthik neeti ko lagu karna atyant aavashyak tha. Sarkar ne july 1991 ke baad desh ko arthik sankat se niakalne tatha vikas ki gati ko teevr karne ke liye vibhinn neetigat upay apnaye hai. Vartaman bhartiy vyavsayik vatavaran ki mukhy visheshtayein nimnlikhit hain.

Udarikaran: udarikaran mein vyavsayik ikaiyon par lage anavashyak pratibandhon va niyantranon ko kam kiya jaata hai. Isme karyvidhiyon ko aasan banaya jaata hai tatha prashasanik badhaon ko kam kiya jaata hai. Nayi arthik neeti se pahle hamari arthvyavastha mein laagu hone wale arthik pravdhan kaafi sakht va jatil the. Audhyogik licensing neeti, niryat aayat neeti, videshi vinimay niyantran va mrtp adhiniyam ke pravdhan itne sakht the kin aye udhyami vyavsay sthamit karne mein hichkichate the. Vartman udhyami apne vyavsay ke aakar ko badha nahi paa rahe the. Isse arthik vikas ki gati dheemi ho gayi thi or sarkar ko arthik sudharon ki aavashyakta anubhav hui. Atah bharan mein bhi udarikaran ki neeti ko apnaya gya.

Nijikaran: nayi arthik neeti mein nijikaran ki dharana ko apnaya gya hai. Iske antargat niji shetr ko mahatvpoorn bhoomika di gayi hai. Nijikaran mein sarvjanik shetr ke liye surakshit rakhe udhyogon ko niji shetr ke liye khol diya jaata hai kcuhh sarvjanik iakaiyon ko anshik ya poorn roop se niji shetr ko bech diya jaata hai. Udhyogon ke nijikaran ka abhipray sarvjanik shtre ked war ko niji shter ke liye khol dene se hai. Isse niji shetr ki bhoomika tatha mahatv mein vradhi hoti hai or use arthik viaks mein mahatvpoorn bhooomika pradan ki jaati hai. Sarvjanik udhyogon ko niji shetr ko hastantrit karna hi nijikaran kahlata hai. Ab keval do (railway tatha parmanu urja) ko chhodkar any sabhi shetron ko niji shetr ke liye khol diya gya hai.


Vaishwikaran: vaishwikaran ka artha hai ek desh ki arthvyavastha ko any deshon ki arthvyavasthaon se joddana tatha videshi poonji, videshi takneek evam svatantr vyapar ko bhadava dena. Vaiswikaran mein ghareloo arthvyavastah ka any deshon ki arthvyavastha ke saath sambandh bhadaya jaata hai. Nayi arthik neeti mein vaishwikaran ko bhadava diya gya hai. Iske antargat videshi poonji, bahurashtriy negamon, videshi vaston va videshi vyaktiyon ke antarpravah par lagi rookavaton ko kam kiya gya hai. Vartman mein bhartiy arthvyavastha ko videshi upkramon tatha bahurashtriy nigamon ke liye khol diya gya hai. Ab bahut se videshi upkram bharat mien sasti shram daron ka laabh uthane kel iye tatha kushal manviy sansadhanon ki uplabdhata ke karan apne nirmani udhyog bharat mein hi sthaout kar rahe hain. Vaishwikaran ka mukhy uddeshy samuche vishw ko ek vaishwik gaanv ke roop mein dekhne se hai. 

Vyavsayik Vatavaran Ke Adhyyan Ki Aavashyakta Evam Mahatv

Adhunik vyavsay din pratidin jatil hota jaa raha hai jisse iska safal sanchalan karna ek chunotipoorn kary ho gya hai. Vyavsay ke safal sanchalan ke liye vatavaran mein vyapt avsaron, chunotiyon, kamjoriyon tatha sahktiyon ka adhyyan karna tatha ise samajhan atyant mahatvpoorn hota hai. Vyavsayik vatavaran ke mahatv ka adhyyan nimnlikhit shirshakon ke antargat kiya jaa sakta hai.

Antrik vatavaran ka poorn gyan: vyavsay ke safal sanchalan ke liye yah abhut aavashyak hota hai ki vyavsay ko apne antrik vataran ka poorn gyan ho. Nirnayan evam bhavi yojanaon evam vyuh rachanon ke nirman kel iye vyavasay ke paas ek aisi viksit prabandh soochan pranali honi chhaiye jisse use vyavsay ke antrik vatavaran ki jaankari poorntah evam shighrata se uplabdh hoti rahe.

Vyavsayik dirghkaleen vyuhrachan ke liye: vyavasay ki dirghkaleen nieetiyan, vikas yojanayein evam vyuh rachanyein taiyar karne ke liye vatavaran ke vibhinn ghatakon ki jankari karna vyavsay ke liye atyant jaroori hai. Bahurashtriy companies ki badhati hui safalta, unke dwar panayi gayi nigamit vyu rachaon par hi adharit hoti hai. Or ye vyuh rachnayein samagr vatavaran ki pahchan karne, samajhne, adhyyan karne tatha inke anuroop kriya rojnaon par adharit hoti hai.

Vyavsayik sanshta ka vikas evam vistar: vyavsay ke nirantar vikas evam vistar ke liye yah aavashyak hai ki vyavsay paryavaran ke antrik evam bahriy ghatakon mein hone wale parivartanon ke prati svayn ko jagrook rakhe. Vyavsayik paryavaran sangathan ke vikas vistar, vividhikaran, parivartan evam pragati ke avsar utpann karta hai. In avsaron ka laabh uthhane ke liye vyavsay ko paryavaran ki badalti hui paristhitiyon ke anusar apna punah nirman karna padta hai.

Antarrashtriy vatavaran ka gyan: vyavsay ke sthayitv, astitv, laabhdeyta evam prabhavi kary pranali par antarrashtruy star par hone wale parivartanon ka bahut adhik prabhav padta hai. Atah vyavasay ke safal sanchalan ke liye antarrashtriy ghatanon, dabavon evam paryavaran ka adhyyan karna atyant aavashyak hota hai.

Sansthaon ki seemaon, avsaron evam chunotiyon ka gyan:vyavsayik vatavarn ke adhyyan se vyavsayik sansthaon ki seemaon, unke samaksh utpann naye avsaron tatha chunotiyon ka samuchit gyan prapt ho jaata hai. Vatavaran ke kcuhh ghatak, neetiyan, desh ka kanoon, pratispardha adi vyavsayik sanshta ki seemayein nirdharit karte hain. Jabki any ghatak jaise upbhokta ki aay, bajar evam takneek ka vikas aadi sanstha ke liey naveen avsar evam chunotiyan prastutu karte hain. Peetar drucker ne likha hai ki adikairk avsaron ki khoj vatavaran ke prati jaagrookta se hi sambhav hai.

Navpravartan tatha srajnatmakta: vyavsayik vatavarn ka adhyyan, vyavsayik ikaiyon ki karyshamta mein vradhi karne kl iey tatha naveen gyan par adhiarit avdharanon ko samajhne mein bahut sahayak hota hai. Naye utpadon, naye designs ki naveen takneekon ko apnane ke liye naye naye prodhyogikiy vikas evam vaigyanik pragti ki jaanakri rakhna aavashyak hota hai. Aaj koi bhi vyavsay chahe vah kisi bhi dehs mein chalaya jaa rahai ho nayi prodhyogikiy evam vaigyanik vidhiyon ki upeksha karke vikas nahi kar sakta.

Prabahvi nirnayan ke liye: prabhavi nirnayan ke liye vyavsayik vatavaran mein hone wale parivartanon ka gyan hona atyant aavashyak hota hai. Renki evam shal ke shabadon mein vatavaran sambandhi vastviktaon ka samuchit adhyyan hi thos vyavsayik nirnayon ka aadhar hai. Atah vyavsayik vatavaran ak adhyyan prabhavi nirnayon ke liye atyant aavashyak hota hai.

Lakshayon ka nirdharan tatha prapti: paryavaran ke prati sajag rahkar hi nirdharit lakshayon ki prapti ho sakti hai. Vastavikata to yah hai ki lakshayon athva uddeshyon ka nirdharan bhi vyavsayik paryavaran ke anuroop kiya jaana chahiye tabhi unki prapti sambhav ho sakti hai. Paryavaran ke viprit nirdharit kiye gaye lakshayon ki parit sadaiv sandigdh bani rahti hai.

Vatavaran ke ghatakon se samanvay ke liye: pratyek vyavsayik sanshta ko vatavaran ke vibhinn ghatakon ke saath samanvay sthapit karna padta hai. Isliye hiks evam gullet ne kaha hai ki yadi kisi sanstha ko safal evam smradh hona hai to ise apne vatavaran se nirantar roop se samanvy karna tatha apne aapko iske anuroop dhalana hoga. Koi bhi sanstha apne ko vatavaran ke anuroop parivartit kiye bina apne lakshayon kop rapt karne mein safal nahi ho sakti.


Parivartanon ka gyan parpt karne ke liye: vyavsayik vatavaran sadaiv gatisheel tatha parivartati hota rahta hai. Upbhoktaon ki aadat, fashion, roochi utpadan, takneeki, pratiyogita, utpad ka roop rang, aakar, gun aadi mein parivartan hota rahta hai. Vyavsay mein safalta prapt karne ke liye in parivartanon ki jaankari rakhna aavashyak hota hai. Atah vyavsayik vatavaran ka niranatar adhyyan aavashyak ho jaata hai. 

Sooksham Ya Vishisht Vatavaran | Micro Environment Of Vyavsay

Aise karak jo kisi firm vishesh par hi apna prabhav dalte hain unhe sooksham ya vishisht vatavaran ke antargat shamil kiya jaata hai. Filip kotlar ke anusar vishist paryavaran mein ve ghatak sammilit hai jo company kea as paas dikhayi dete hain. Vishisht paryavaran ke pramukh sanghatak ya nirdharak nimnlikhit hai.

Pratidwandi: kisi bhi vyavsay mein utpadan karne wali anek firmein hote hain. Pratyek firm ko apne pratiyogiyon ke vyavhar ke anuroop hi apni vyavsayik gatividhiyon ka sanchalan karna padta hai. Vastutah ek vyavsayik firm ko anek prakar ki pratiyogitaon jaise brand pratiyogita, utpad swaroop pratiyogita, janan pratiyogita aadi ka samna karna padta hai jin par uska koi niyantran nahi hota.

Grahak: vishisht vatavaran mein grahakon ka pratyaksh prabhav hota hai. Udhyami ka pramukh uddeshy grahakon ko santusht karke adhiktam laabh kamana hota hai. Atah uske liye yah janana aavashyak htoa hai ki grahak kis prakar ki vastuyein pasand karte hain. Udhyami keval grahakon ki sankhya badhane par hi dhyan nahi deta hai balki is baat ki bhi koshish karta hai ki ve udhaym ke saath sthir roop es jude rahein.

Aaportikarta: utapdan karne ke liye udhyami ko kachhe maal ki aavashyakta hoti hai. Atah utpadan ko suvyavasthit karne ke liye yah aavashyak hota hai ki sabhi saadhan niyamit roop se uchit keemataon par uplabdh rahein. Aaporti mein anishchitata ke karan firm ko aavashyakta se adhik kachhe maal sangrah karna padta hai jis par adhik laagat vyay hoti hai.

Vipnan madhyasth: prayek firm ko aise madhyasthon ki aavashykata hoti hai jo uske dwara utpadik vastuon ko bechane mein madad karein. Vipnan madhyasth firmon ko unki vastuon ke vitran, vikray tatha pravartan mein sahayata karte hain. Iske liye radio, vigyapan, tv, salahakar firmon ki bhi sahayta li ja sakti hai.

Janta: public ya janta ke antargat sthaniy janta, public, midia, grahak sangathan, udhaym mein karyrat karmchari aadi ko shamil kiya jaata hai. Janta kisi bhi vyavsay ko bahut adhik prabhavit kar sakti hai. Public media vyavsay se sambandhit upyogi evam mahatvpoorn soochnaon ko prakashit karke jahan uske vikas mein sahayk sidh ho sakta hai vahin company ki pratishtha ke virudh sochan dekar use nuksan bhi pahuncha sakta hai.

Vyapak ya samashti vatavaran
Aise tatv jo sanstha ke sanchalan par seedhe prabhav nahi dalte varan samany roop se prabhavi hote hain tatha jin par vishisht karakon ki tulna mien iyantran rakhna kathin hota hai unhe vyapak ya samashti vatavaran ke antargat sammilit kiya jaata hai. Vyavsay ke samashti vatavaran mein nimnlikhit tatv sammilit hote hain.

Arthik tatv: vyavsayik vatavaran ko prabhavit karne wale tatvon mein arthik tatvon ka apna vishesh sthan hai jaise prati vyakti aay, rashtriy aay, sahayak evam poorak udhyog, parivahan sanchar vyavastha evam bijali ki sulabh matra aadi. Audhyogik sansthaon dwara nirmit vastuon par vyaktigat evam rashtriy aay ka mahatvpoorn prabhav padta hai. Yadi prati vyakti aay adhik hogi to nagrik smridh honge or adhik vastuon ka upbhog kar apna jeevan star uncha bana sakte hain.

Janankiy vatavaran: vyavsayik kriyaon mein utpad tatha sevayein manushyon ke liye hi taiyar kiye jaate hain. Jis desh ki jansankhya jitni adhik hogi us desh mein vastu ke liye bajar utna hi adhik vishal hoga. Akar ke saath saath jansankhya ka shiksha star, aay ka vitran, purush mahila ka pratishat, janm dar, mratu dar, ghanatv, umr ke adhar par jansankhya ka vitran adi ka bhi prabhav padta hai. Inke atirik jansankhya ki vradhi dar, rojgar ka star, berojgaron ki sankhya, aadi bhi kisi firm ki maang par prabhav dalte hain.

Samajik sanskritik tatv: vyavsayik vatavaran par samajik reeti rivaj, shiksha star, samany vichar tatha dharmik vishwas ka bhut adhik prabhav padta hai. Vyavsay ki ranneeti banate samay samajik sanskritik paryavaran ka adhyyan karna aavashyak hota hai. Reeti rivaj, paramapraon, manyataon, roochiyon tatha prathmiktaon jaise samajik evam sanskritik karakon ki upeksha karne ke bhayankar dushparinaam hote hain or uski unchi laagat sahan karni padti hai. Logon ki vyay tatha upbhog ki aadate, bhasha, vishwas, shiksha tatha any manyatayein vyavsay par vyapak prabhav dalte hain.

Prakartik tatv: desh ke prakarti saadhan, unka vitran, bhoomi ki upjao shakti, jal, vaayu, pahad, khanij, van sampada aaadi bhi vyavsayik sanchalan ko prabhavit karte hain. Parvatiy shetron mein paryatan, pashupalan evam van udhoyg adhik panap sakte hain to maidani bhagon mein krashi udhyog adhik panap sakta hai. Vibhinn bajaron ki bhogolik sthiti mein antar hone par bhi bajar mein aprivartan aa jaata hai jaise ki pahadi shetr mein maaruti ke sthan par jipsi ki maang adhik ho jaati hai.

Rajnaitik tatv: desh ka rajnaiktik vatavaran bhi vyavsay ke sanchalan ko bahut adhik prabhavit karta hai. Yadi desh mein shanti or suraksha hai vyaktigat sampatti ke sangrah par kisi prakar ka pratibandh nahi hai tatha jan jeevan ki surkasha evam nyay ke liye prabandh hai to logon mien aay ko bachane ki adhik ichha hogi, adhik poonji sanchayan hoga or vyapar ke vikas ko protsahan milega. Videshi poonji bhi desh mein shanti va suraksha rahne par hi akarshit hogi. Sarkar ki udhyog, sarkari shetr evam janshetr ityadi se sambandhit neetiyon par bhi artihk vikas ki gati nirbhar rahti hai.


Antarrashtriy vatavaran: antarashtry vatavaran mein videshi vyapar neeti antarrashtry sandhiyon, vyapar samjhoton, sanrakshan neeti, videshi vinimy neeti aadi pahluon ko sammilit kiya jaata hai. Antarrashtri vatavaran udhyogon ke vikas ko abhut adhik prabhavit karta hai. Videshi bajaron mien mandi tatha sarkari vyapar sanrakshan neeti, niryat aadharit udhyogon ke samne bahut si kathinaiyan utpann kar deti hain. Isi prakar antarrashtriy tel mulyon mien vradhi ne sabhi deshon ki arthvyavastha ko buri tarah se prabhavit kiya hai. 

Vyavsayik Vatavaran Ki Prakarti Athva Visheshtayein | All Characteristics

Vyavsayik vatavaran ki prakarti ko nimnankit prakar se spasht kiya jaa sakta hai.
Vyavsayik vatavaran gatisheel hota hai: vyavsayik vatavarn ke visbhinn sanghatak tatvon mein nirantar parivartan hota rahta hai jisse vyavsay vatavarn ki prakarti atyant gatisheel hoti hai. Isi karan vyavsayik firmon ki neeityan bhi vatavaran parivartan ke anusar parivartit hoti rahti hai.

Vyavsayik vatavaran jatil hota hai: vyavsayik vatavaran ki parkarti atyant jatil hoti hai kyonki isme vibhinn arthik, samajik, rajneetik, bhotik tatha takneeki ghatakon ke prabhav tatha paristhitiyon ka adhyyan kiya jaata hai.

Vyavsayik vatavaran aniyantrit hota hai: prateyk sanstha ka vatvaran antrik evam bahriy do prakar ka hota hai. Vyavsayik sasntha apne antrik vatavaan par niyantran kar leti hai. Atah vah use bahut adhik prabhavit nahi karta hai. Kintu bahriy vatavaran par sanstha ka koi niyantran nahi hota hai. Atah use bahriy vatavaran ke anuroop apne nirnay lene hote hain.

Vyavsayik vatavaran ke sanghatak tatv paraspar nirbhar hote hain: vyavsayik vatavaran ke vibhinn tatv ek doosre par nirbhar hote hain tatha ek doosre ko prabhavit karte hain. Vibhinn arthik ghatak samajik ghatakon ko, samajik ghatak rajneetik ghatakon ko tatha isi prakar any sabhi ghatak aapas mein ek doosre ko prabhavit karte hain.

Vyavsayik vatavaran anishchit hota hai: vyavsayik vatavaran par anek ghaktaon ka prabhav padta hai jisse iski prakarti anishchit ho jaati hai. Iske vibhinn ghatakon mein nirantar parivartan hote reahte hain tatha unka sahi anuman lagana bahut kathin hota hai.

Vyavsayik vatavaran mein parivartanon ki prakarti vrattiy hoti hai: dirghkaal mein vyavsayik vatavaran mein hone wale parivartanon ki prakriya rekhiy na hokar, vratakar hoti hai tatha is baat ka pata lagana kathin hota hai ki kisi bindu vishesh par parivartan ke parasparik prabhav ki shuruaat kahan se hui hai tatha iska ant kahan hua hai? Vyavsayik vatavaran mein parivartanon ki prakriya nirantar chalti rahti hai tatha iska na koi prarambhik bindu hota hai or na hi antim bindu hota hai.

Vyavsayik vatavaran dirghkaleen niyojan ka adhar hota hai: vyavsayik vatavaran ka vyavsayik firmon ke vikas tatha laabhpradta par bahut adhik prabhav padta hai atah dirghkaleen niyojan ke liye vyavsayik vatavaran ke vibhinn ghatakaon ka adhyyan karke vyuhrachan tatha uddeshy nirdharit kye jaate hain.

Vyavsayik vatavaran mein hone wale parivartan sabhi vyavsayik firmon ko saman roop se prabhavit nahi karte: vyavsayik vatavaran mein hone wale parivartanon ka sabhi vyavsayik firmon par saman prabhav nahi padta hai. Ye parivartan jahan ek firm ke vikas mein sahayak ho sakte hain vahin doosir firm ise apne vikas mein avrodhak maan sakti hai.

Vyavsayik vatavaran ke bhaag
Pratyek vyavsayik sasntha par antrik evam bahriy donon prakar ke karakon ka prabhav padta hai isliye vyavsayik vatavaran ko do vargon mein vibhakt kiya jaa sakta hai.

Antrik vatavaran: antrik vatavaran se tatpary sansha ke antrik sangathan se hota hai jiske madhyam se vah apna kary karti hai. Antrik vatavaran mein hone wale parivartan sanstha ke kary sanchalan ko prabhit to karte hain lekin in parivartanon par sanstha ka niyantran hota hai isliye inhe niyantraniy char kaha jaata hai. Prabandhak antrik vatavaran ko koi vishesh chunoti nahi mante hain kyonki ve in karakon ko apne uddeshyon ke anusar apne paksh mein kar sakte hain. Antrik vatavaran mein pramukh roop se nimnlikhit tatvon ko sammilit kiya jaata hai.

Sanstha ke pramukh lakshy mein uddeshy, sanstha ki vichardhara, darshan evam drashtikon. Sanstha ki vyavsayik evam prabandhkiy neetiyan, sansadhanon ki uplabdhata, karysheelta evam upyogita. Utpadan ki karyvidhiyan evam takneek, shram ki kushalta evam karmchariyon tatha adhikariyon ke beech sambandh. Vyavsayik prabandh soochna pranali evam sampreshan ki vyavastha, sanstha ki sangathan sanrachna, vikendirkaran, dayitv evam shaktiyan aadi.


Bahriy vatavaran: bahriy vatavaran se aashy sabhi bahriy ghatakon se hota hai jo kisi sanstha ke nirnayon, kriyakalapon tatha safalta ko prabhavit karte hain. In par udhoyg ka koi niyantran nahi hota, isliye inhe aniyantrniy char bhi kaha jaata hai. Bahriy vatavaran ko do upvargon mein baantkar adhyyan kiya ja sakta hai.

Sunday, November 11, 2018

Vyavsayik Vatavaran | Avdharana, Sanghatak Va Mahatv

Pratyek vyavsay apne charon or faile vatavarn ko dhyan mein rakhkar hi sanchalit kiya jaa sakta hai. Vastav mein vyavsay evam suka vatavaran ek doosre se jude hue hote hain tatha vyavsayi ko samaj, rashtr tatha antarrasthriy vatavaran mein rahkar hi apni kriayon ka sacnahalan karna hota hai. Yadi vah in baton ki upeksha karta hai to vah vyvasay ka safal sanchalan nahi kar paayega tatha apne uddehsyon kop rapt karne mein asafal sidhh hoga. Vyavsyaik vatavarn shabad do shabadon vyavsay va vatavaran se milkar bana hai. Atah iske arth ko samajhne ke liye vyavasay tatha vatavaran ka arth samajhna aavashyak hai.

Vyavsayik Vatavaran


Vyavsay ka arth
Vyavsay se aashy un samast manviy arthik kryaon se hai jo vastuon or sevaon ke utpadan or vitran kel iye ki jaati hai or jinka uddeshy parasparik hit hota hai. Doosre shabadon mein vyavsay ek aisi samajik sanstha hai jo mulyvan vastuon evam sevaon ke utpadan evam vinimy dwara laabh prapt krti hai tatha jiska mukhy uddeshy samaj ki aavashyaktaon ki poorti karna hota hai. Manushy dwara ki jaane wale keval arthik kriyaiin hi vyavasay mein sammilit ki jaati hai jaise vyapar karna, krashi kary karna, chikitsak, adhyapak va vakeel ke roop mein kary karna.

Vatavaran ka arth: vatavaran se aashy un ghatakon se lagaya jaata hai jinke andar rahkar manushy ko kary karna hota hai tatha iski seemaon mein rahkar hi sabhi kriyaine sanchalit ki jaati hai. In ghatakon mien arthik, samajik, bhotik, takneeki, antrik bahriy, niyantrit tatha aniyantrit ghatak shamil hote hain. Inhi ghatakon ke dwara kary shetr ka nirdharan kiya jaata hai.

Robbins ke anusar, vatavaran un sansthaon athva shaktiyon se bana hota hai jo kisi sangathan ke kary nishpadan ko prabhvit karti hai kintu us sanghathan ka un par bahut kam niyantran hota hai. Webster shabadakosh ke anusar, paryavaran se aashy un parivarti paristhtiyon, prabhavon tatha shaktiyon se hai jo samajik tatha sanskritik dashaon ke samoohon ke roop mein jaise reeti revaj, bhasha, kanoon, dharm tatha arthik va rajneetik sangathan kisi vyakti athva samuday ke jeevan ko prabhavit karti hai.

Vyavsayik vatavaran ka arth: vyavsayik vataran se aashy un vibhinn gatisheel, jatil va aniyantrit arthik, samajik, rajneetik, sanskritik evam takneeki ghatakon ke yog se htoa hai jinme rahkar vyavasay ko kary karna padta hai. Vyavsay tatha vatavaran ek doosre par nirbhar rahte hain tatha vatavaran ka badalta svaroop vyavsay ko parivartit karne par majboor kar deta hai. Vyavsayik vatavaran ko vibhinn vidwanon ne nimnankit prakar se parbhashit kiya hai.

Renki evam shal ke anusar vyavsayik vatavarna mein vah sabhi bahriy ghatak sammilit hote hain jinse yah ghira hua hai tatha jinse yah pratyaksh athva paroksh roop se prabhavit hota hai. Veemar ke shadadon mein vyavsayik paryavaran meinv ah paridrashy athva un arthik, samajik, rajnaitk athva sansthagat dasahon ka samooh sammilit hai jiske antargat vyavsayik kriyaon kalapon ka sanchalan kiya jaata hai. William glook evam jok ke anusar vyavsayik paridrashy mein firm ke bahar ke ghatak shamil kiye jaate hain jo firm ke liye avsar evam khatre utpann karte hain.


Upryukt paribhashaon ke aadhar par yah kaha jaa sakta hai ki vyavsayik vatavaran vibhinn gatisheel, jatil evam aniyantrit bahriy arthik, samajik, bhotik va takneeki ghatakon ka yog hai jinke bheetar vyavsay ko kary karna padta hai. In ghatakon ko niyantrit nahi kiya jaa sakta hai tatah v eek firm ke vyavsayik nirnay ko prabhavit karte hain. 

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