Nayi arthik neeti ki ghosahan 1991 mein ki gayi thi jisme mukhy roop se udarikaran, nijikaran, vaishwikaran par jor diya gya. 1991 se poor arthik vikas ke liye sarvjanik shetr ko mukhy bhoomika di gayi thi tatha niji shetr par vibhinn tarah ke niyantran lagaye gaye the. Parantu sarvjanik shetr nokarshahi, lalfeetashahi, atyadhik staff, pahal bhavna ki kami aadi ke karanvanchhit parinam prapt nahi kar saka. Is sabka parinam yah hua ki 1991 mein desh mein abhootpoorv arthik sankat utpann ho gaya. Arthvyavastha ko arthik sankat se nikalane or use teji se nirantar vikas ke marg par punah lane kel iye ek uchit arthik neeti ko lagu karna atyant aavashyak tha. Sarkar ne july 1991 ke baad desh ko arthik sankat se niakalne tatha vikas ki gati ko teevr karne ke liye vibhinn neetigat upay apnaye hai. Vartaman bhartiy vyavsayik vatavaran ki mukhy visheshtayein nimnlikhit hain.

Udarikaran: udarikaran mein vyavsayik ikaiyon par lage anavashyak pratibandhon va niyantranon ko kam kiya jaata hai. Isme karyvidhiyon ko aasan banaya jaata hai tatha prashasanik badhaon ko kam kiya jaata hai. Nayi arthik neeti se pahle hamari arthvyavastha mein laagu hone wale arthik pravdhan kaafi sakht va jatil the. Audhyogik licensing neeti, niryat aayat neeti, videshi vinimay niyantran va mrtp adhiniyam ke pravdhan itne sakht the kin aye udhyami vyavsay sthamit karne mein hichkichate the. Vartman udhyami apne vyavsay ke aakar ko badha nahi paa rahe the. Isse arthik vikas ki gati dheemi ho gayi thi or sarkar ko arthik sudharon ki aavashyakta anubhav hui. Atah bharan mein bhi udarikaran ki neeti ko apnaya gya.

Nijikaran: nayi arthik neeti mein nijikaran ki dharana ko apnaya gya hai. Iske antargat niji shetr ko mahatvpoorn bhoomika di gayi hai. Nijikaran mein sarvjanik shetr ke liye surakshit rakhe udhyogon ko niji shetr ke liye khol diya jaata hai kcuhh sarvjanik iakaiyon ko anshik ya poorn roop se niji shetr ko bech diya jaata hai. Udhyogon ke nijikaran ka abhipray sarvjanik shtre ked war ko niji shter ke liye khol dene se hai. Isse niji shetr ki bhoomika tatha mahatv mein vradhi hoti hai or use arthik viaks mein mahatvpoorn bhooomika pradan ki jaati hai. Sarvjanik udhyogon ko niji shetr ko hastantrit karna hi nijikaran kahlata hai. Ab keval do (railway tatha parmanu urja) ko chhodkar any sabhi shetron ko niji shetr ke liye khol diya gya hai.


Vaishwikaran: vaishwikaran ka artha hai ek desh ki arthvyavastha ko any deshon ki arthvyavasthaon se joddana tatha videshi poonji, videshi takneek evam svatantr vyapar ko bhadava dena. Vaiswikaran mein ghareloo arthvyavastah ka any deshon ki arthvyavastha ke saath sambandh bhadaya jaata hai. Nayi arthik neeti mein vaishwikaran ko bhadava diya gya hai. Iske antargat videshi poonji, bahurashtriy negamon, videshi vaston va videshi vyaktiyon ke antarpravah par lagi rookavaton ko kam kiya gya hai. Vartman mein bhartiy arthvyavastha ko videshi upkramon tatha bahurashtriy nigamon ke liye khol diya gya hai. Ab bahut se videshi upkram bharat mien sasti shram daron ka laabh uthane kel iye tatha kushal manviy sansadhanon ki uplabdhata ke karan apne nirmani udhyog bharat mein hi sthaout kar rahe hain. Vaishwikaran ka mukhy uddeshy samuche vishw ko ek vaishwik gaanv ke roop mein dekhne se hai.