Sanghiy shasan ke anuroop bahrat ki vitt vyvastah sanghiy hai. Vitty sahdaon ko bhi teen shreniyon mein banata gya hai. Aay ke kichh stor kendr ko tatha kichh any strot rajy ko diye gaye hain. Kuchh kar aise bhi honete hain jinko kendr hi lagata hai or kendr hi vasool akrta hai paranty unki kul aay athva uske kuchh bvhag ka bantvarar rajyon mein hota hai. Yah bantavara vitt aayog ki report ke anusar hota hai.

Bhartiy sanvidhan dwara kendr tatha rajyon ke beech jo vitty samabnadh sthapit kiye gaye hain unki mukhy visheshtayein nimnlikhit hain-

Kendriy sarkar ki aay ke sadhan: is shreni ke antargat aane wali aay ki pramukh madein saatvi anusoochi ke anusar hai. Pahli soochi mein nimnlikhit karon ko shamil kiya gya hai -
Aay kar, aayat va niryat kar, tambaku tatha any vastuon par utpadan kar, prambandal kar, karshi bhoomi ko chhodkar vyaktiyon tatha companniyon ki poonji va sampatti kar. Krashi bhoomi ko chhodkar any sampatiyon or sampada or uttradhikar kar, rel, samudr or vayumargon dwarar dhoye gaye maal or yatriton par chungi kar. Bechan sadhy pralekhon, beema patr, ansh hastantran, ran patr aadi par mudrank kar. Samachar patron ke kray vikray tatha unme chape vigyapano par kar. Antarrajyiy evam vayde ke bajar mein kiye gaye sodon par mudrank akr ko chhodkar any kar.

Rajy sarkaron ki aay ke sadhan
Is shreni mein aane wali aay ki pramukh maiden saatvi anusoochi ki doosri soochi ek anusra hai. Raj sarkaon ki kar soochi is prakar hai.

Bhoomi par lagan, krashi par ay kar, krashi bhoomi ke uttradhikar par kar, krashi bhoomi par sampada kar, bhoomi tatha makaon par kar, khaniz ke khanan ar kar, rajyon mein nirmit madak padarthon par kar. Vidhyut utpad tatha upbhog par kar, samachar patron ko chodkar any vastuon ke kray vikray par kar. Vigyapan kar kar, atirikt jal tatha sthal margrn ke yatriyon tatha maal par kar. Vibhin prakar ki gadiyon par kar, pashiyon tatha naavon par kar, vyavasya par kar, maoranjan, shart evam juye par kar, vitty pralekhonk o chodkar pralekhon par mudran kar.

Kendr evam rajyon ke vitty sambandhon ka mulyankan
Bhartiy sanvidhan mein sangh tatha rajy sarkaron ke beech vitty sambandhon ki vyvastha vyapak roop se ki gayi hai jiske karan bahut se sangharshon va manmutaon se mukti mil gayi hai. Doosre vitt aayog ki niyukti ke karan kendr tathra rajyon ke vitty sambandhon mein ek molik loch prapt hui hai. Teesre sahayata anudan se sehtriy vishamtayein kuchh kam hui hai parantu phir bhi rajy sangh vitty sambandon mein kendirykaran ki pravarti dekhayi deti hai arthat kendr ko vityt mamalon mein rajyon se adhik shaktishali banaya gya hai jaisa nimn vivran se sapsth hai -

Kendr par nirbharta: rajyon ke liye nirdharti kar kam lochpoorn evam utpadak hai jiske karan adhikansh rajyon ki kendr par nirbharta bhadti jaa rahi hai kabhi kabhi yah kendr evam rajyon ke madhy sangharsh ka karan bhi ban jaata hai.

Dayitvon ka anuchit vibhajan: kendr evam rjayon ke madhy dayitvon ka bantwara kisi vaigyanik vidhi par adhari niahi tha. Isliye anek rajy adhik kendiry sahayata prapt karne mein safal rahe.

Karony ka adhivyapan: kendiry sahayata ke shetr mein vitt aayog evam yojana aayog ke karyon mein kuchh adhivyapan aa gya hai. Rajasv antral ke liye anudan vitt ayog dwara diya jaata hai yojana sahaytak yojana aayog dwara tatha rahat sahayta kendr sarkar dwara di jaati hai. Kabhi kabhi yojana aayog apne se bahar ke shetron mein bhi hastshep kar deta hai.

Arthik pichhadepan ko bhar: sarvpratham chhate vitt ayaog ne kar aay hastantran ke mamale mien arhtikl pichhadepan ko mahatv diya. Iske poorv sadhan vitran mein arthik pichhadepan ki bhagidari bilkul nahi thi. Ab bhi iska pratishat kam hai.

Sadhan antral ka anuman avaigyanik: aay or vyay ke anumanit antar ko sadhan antral kahte hain. Rajy adhikanshtah bade anudaon ki rpati kel iye vyay ka dhik or kar aay ka kam anuman lagate hain. Inhi adharon par vitt aayog sahayata anudan ki sifarshi karta hai. Ise nirdharti karna ek kathin kary hai.

Svechhari nirnay: yojana aayog dwara sadhan hastantran ki vidhi vastunishth vidhi par adhari niahi thi. Sabhi kuchh is baat par nirbhar karta hai ki kendr rajyon ke liye kya aavashyak samjhta hai.

Bhadte shetriy asantulan: kendriry sadhano ke manmane sthanantran irnayon ne shtriy asantulanon ko bhadaya hai. Prati vyakti aay mein asamamta bhadi hai. Vyvahar mein dhani rajyon ne prati vyakti anudan ki nridharn rajyon kit ulna mein adhik rashi prapt ki hai.

Nirantarta ka abhav: kendr se rajoyn ko sdhan sthanantrit karne ki prakirya mein nirantarta ka abhav rahah hai. Kar aay vitran ke pratishat mein bhinta rahi hai or arthik pichhadepan ke tatv ko bhinn bhinn bhartia di gayi hai.


D t lakadwala ne kendr or rajyon ke madhy vitty sambandhon ke bare mein likha hai ki kathinayi isliye utpaan hoti hai ki rakyon ko jitney karon or uttardayitv soonpe jaate hain unke anupat mein unhe vitty sadhan dene ke sidhhant ka palan nahi kiya jaata hai. Parnamtah rajyon par vitty bojh bhadate jaa rahe hain. Doosri or rashtiry samanvy ke sidhhant ke adhar par aay ke adhikansh pragatisheel sadhan kendriy sarkar ke paas rah jaate hain. Inhi karanon se sanghiy vyvastha mien atirikt vitty samasyaein bhadti hain.