Monday, November 12, 2018

Sooksham Ya Vishisht Vatavaran | Micro Environment Of Vyavsay

Aise karak jo kisi firm vishesh par hi apna prabhav dalte hain unhe sooksham ya vishisht vatavaran ke antargat shamil kiya jaata hai. Filip kotlar ke anusar vishist paryavaran mein ve ghatak sammilit hai jo company kea as paas dikhayi dete hain. Vishisht paryavaran ke pramukh sanghatak ya nirdharak nimnlikhit hai.

Pratidwandi: kisi bhi vyavsay mein utpadan karne wali anek firmein hote hain. Pratyek firm ko apne pratiyogiyon ke vyavhar ke anuroop hi apni vyavsayik gatividhiyon ka sanchalan karna padta hai. Vastutah ek vyavsayik firm ko anek prakar ki pratiyogitaon jaise brand pratiyogita, utpad swaroop pratiyogita, janan pratiyogita aadi ka samna karna padta hai jin par uska koi niyantran nahi hota.

Grahak: vishisht vatavaran mein grahakon ka pratyaksh prabhav hota hai. Udhyami ka pramukh uddeshy grahakon ko santusht karke adhiktam laabh kamana hota hai. Atah uske liye yah janana aavashyak htoa hai ki grahak kis prakar ki vastuyein pasand karte hain. Udhyami keval grahakon ki sankhya badhane par hi dhyan nahi deta hai balki is baat ki bhi koshish karta hai ki ve udhaym ke saath sthir roop es jude rahein.

Aaportikarta: utapdan karne ke liye udhyami ko kachhe maal ki aavashyakta hoti hai. Atah utpadan ko suvyavasthit karne ke liye yah aavashyak hota hai ki sabhi saadhan niyamit roop se uchit keemataon par uplabdh rahein. Aaporti mein anishchitata ke karan firm ko aavashyakta se adhik kachhe maal sangrah karna padta hai jis par adhik laagat vyay hoti hai.

Vipnan madhyasth: prayek firm ko aise madhyasthon ki aavashykata hoti hai jo uske dwara utpadik vastuon ko bechane mein madad karein. Vipnan madhyasth firmon ko unki vastuon ke vitran, vikray tatha pravartan mein sahayata karte hain. Iske liye radio, vigyapan, tv, salahakar firmon ki bhi sahayta li ja sakti hai.

Janta: public ya janta ke antargat sthaniy janta, public, midia, grahak sangathan, udhaym mein karyrat karmchari aadi ko shamil kiya jaata hai. Janta kisi bhi vyavsay ko bahut adhik prabhavit kar sakti hai. Public media vyavsay se sambandhit upyogi evam mahatvpoorn soochnaon ko prakashit karke jahan uske vikas mein sahayk sidh ho sakta hai vahin company ki pratishtha ke virudh sochan dekar use nuksan bhi pahuncha sakta hai.

Vyapak ya samashti vatavaran
Aise tatv jo sanstha ke sanchalan par seedhe prabhav nahi dalte varan samany roop se prabhavi hote hain tatha jin par vishisht karakon ki tulna mien iyantran rakhna kathin hota hai unhe vyapak ya samashti vatavaran ke antargat sammilit kiya jaata hai. Vyavsay ke samashti vatavaran mein nimnlikhit tatv sammilit hote hain.

Arthik tatv: vyavsayik vatavaran ko prabhavit karne wale tatvon mein arthik tatvon ka apna vishesh sthan hai jaise prati vyakti aay, rashtriy aay, sahayak evam poorak udhyog, parivahan sanchar vyavastha evam bijali ki sulabh matra aadi. Audhyogik sansthaon dwara nirmit vastuon par vyaktigat evam rashtriy aay ka mahatvpoorn prabhav padta hai. Yadi prati vyakti aay adhik hogi to nagrik smridh honge or adhik vastuon ka upbhog kar apna jeevan star uncha bana sakte hain.

Janankiy vatavaran: vyavsayik kriyaon mein utpad tatha sevayein manushyon ke liye hi taiyar kiye jaate hain. Jis desh ki jansankhya jitni adhik hogi us desh mein vastu ke liye bajar utna hi adhik vishal hoga. Akar ke saath saath jansankhya ka shiksha star, aay ka vitran, purush mahila ka pratishat, janm dar, mratu dar, ghanatv, umr ke adhar par jansankhya ka vitran adi ka bhi prabhav padta hai. Inke atirik jansankhya ki vradhi dar, rojgar ka star, berojgaron ki sankhya, aadi bhi kisi firm ki maang par prabhav dalte hain.

Samajik sanskritik tatv: vyavsayik vatavaran par samajik reeti rivaj, shiksha star, samany vichar tatha dharmik vishwas ka bhut adhik prabhav padta hai. Vyavsay ki ranneeti banate samay samajik sanskritik paryavaran ka adhyyan karna aavashyak hota hai. Reeti rivaj, paramapraon, manyataon, roochiyon tatha prathmiktaon jaise samajik evam sanskritik karakon ki upeksha karne ke bhayankar dushparinaam hote hain or uski unchi laagat sahan karni padti hai. Logon ki vyay tatha upbhog ki aadate, bhasha, vishwas, shiksha tatha any manyatayein vyavsay par vyapak prabhav dalte hain.

Prakartik tatv: desh ke prakarti saadhan, unka vitran, bhoomi ki upjao shakti, jal, vaayu, pahad, khanij, van sampada aaadi bhi vyavsayik sanchalan ko prabhavit karte hain. Parvatiy shetron mein paryatan, pashupalan evam van udhoyg adhik panap sakte hain to maidani bhagon mein krashi udhyog adhik panap sakta hai. Vibhinn bajaron ki bhogolik sthiti mein antar hone par bhi bajar mein aprivartan aa jaata hai jaise ki pahadi shetr mein maaruti ke sthan par jipsi ki maang adhik ho jaati hai.

Rajnaitik tatv: desh ka rajnaiktik vatavaran bhi vyavsay ke sanchalan ko bahut adhik prabhavit karta hai. Yadi desh mein shanti or suraksha hai vyaktigat sampatti ke sangrah par kisi prakar ka pratibandh nahi hai tatha jan jeevan ki surkasha evam nyay ke liye prabandh hai to logon mien aay ko bachane ki adhik ichha hogi, adhik poonji sanchayan hoga or vyapar ke vikas ko protsahan milega. Videshi poonji bhi desh mein shanti va suraksha rahne par hi akarshit hogi. Sarkar ki udhyog, sarkari shetr evam janshetr ityadi se sambandhit neetiyon par bhi artihk vikas ki gati nirbhar rahti hai.


Antarrashtriy vatavaran: antarashtry vatavaran mein videshi vyapar neeti antarrashtry sandhiyon, vyapar samjhoton, sanrakshan neeti, videshi vinimy neeti aadi pahluon ko sammilit kiya jaata hai. Antarrashtri vatavaran udhyogon ke vikas ko abhut adhik prabhavit karta hai. Videshi bajaron mien mandi tatha sarkari vyapar sanrakshan neeti, niryat aadharit udhyogon ke samne bahut si kathinaiyan utpann kar deti hain. Isi prakar antarrashtriy tel mulyon mien vradhi ne sabhi deshon ki arthvyavastha ko buri tarah se prabhavit kiya hai. 

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