Arthik vatavaran vyavsay ko bahut adhik prabhavit karta hai. Isme mukhytah teen ghatakon ko sammilit kiya jaata hai desh mein vidyaman arthik dashayein, desh ki arthik neetiayn tatha desh ki arthik pranali.

Arthik dashayein: kisi bhi desh ki arthik dashayein jaise prakartik sansadhan, manviy sansadhan, arthik vikas ka star, rashtriy utpadan, bajar ka aakar, desh ka aadharbhoot dhancha, poonji aadi us desh ki arthik pragati ka soochak maani jaati hai. Desh ki arthik viaks ki avastha hi gharely bajar ka aakar nirdharit karti hai. Desh mein logon ke upbhog star,a ay rojgar, bachat aadi ke aadhar par hi vyavsay apne vikas evam vistar, naye utpadon ki shuruat, vugyapan, naye bajaron ki khoj, nayi utpad abhikalpanayein aadi ke bare mein yojanayein evam karykram tiayar karta hai. Is prakar desh mein vidhyaman arthik dashayein vyavsay ko kaafi had tak prabhavit karti hai.

Vyavsay Ka Arthik Paryavaran


Desh ki arthik neetiyan: kisi desh ki arthik neetiyan jaise audhyogik neeti, modrik neeti, rajkoshiy neeti, vyapar neeti aadi bhi desh mein vyavsay, udhyog evam arthik kriyaon ko bahut adhik prabhavit karti hai. Audhyogik neeti desh mein udhyogon ki sthapana tatha karypranali ke liye margdarshan pradan karti hai. Prathmikta prapt shetron mein udhyogon ko anek prakar ke protsahan diye jate hain jabki kam prathmikata vale udhoyong ko kathinaiyon ka saman karna padta hai. Sarkar dwara yadi videshi vyapar mein sanrakshan ki neeti panayi jaati ai to isse gharelu udhyogon ko laabh milata hai. Vahin udar aayat neeti gharelu udhoyon ke liye hanikaran sidhh ho sakti hai. Atah arthik neetiyon ka vyavsayik sambhavnaon par bahut adhi prabhav padta hai.

Arthik pranali: kisi bhi desh ki arthik rpanali us desh ki arthik vichardahar, arthik sanrachana tatha arthik khulepan ko pradarshit karti hai, arthik pranali pramukh roopp se teen prakar ki hoti hai poonjiwadi, samajwadi tatha mishrit arthik pranali. Poonjiwadi pranali mein utpadan ke sadhanon par niji svamitv hota hai tatha arthik kiryaon ka sanchalan tatha niyaman laabh ki prerana se poonjipatiyon dwara kiya jaata hai. Is pranali mein arthik kriyaon par sarkar ka bahut kam hastshep rahta hai. Samajwadi pranali mein utpadan ke sadhanon par rajy ka niyantran evam svamitv rahta hai. Isme rashtr ki prathmiktaon ke anuroop hi utpadean kary sanchalit kiya jaata hai. Mishirt arthik pranali mein sarvjanik shetr evam niji shetr ka sahastitv hota hai, is pranali mein dohare bajar ki sthiti paayi jaati hai arthat kuchh vastuon ki keemate to bajar mein maang tatah poorti ke aadhar par nirdharti hoti hai jabki kuchh vaston par sarkar rationing tatha niyantran rakhti hai. Atah desh ki arthik pranali ke aadhar par hi vyavsay ke aakar vikas tatha vistar ki sambhavnayein aadhirit hoti hai.

Anarthik vatavaran ke vyavsay par prabhav : arthik vatavaran ki tarah anarthik vatavaran bhi vyavsay ko bahut adhik prabhavit karta hai. Anarthik vatavaran mein takneeki, janankiy, samajik, sanskritik, prakarti, rajnaitik tatha antarrashtriy tatv sammilit kiye jaate hain. In sabhi tatvon ka vyavsay par gahra prabhav padta hai.

Vyavsayik paryavaran gatisheel hota hai tatha usme nirantar parivaratan hote rahte hain. Bharat ke vyavsayik paryavaran mein bhi nirantar parivartan hote rahte hain. Svatantra prapti ke pashchat san 1948 mein bharat mein pratham audhyogik neeti ki ghosahan ki gayi thi jisme sarvjanik shetr ko pramukhta di gayi. Gharelu udhoyogon ko prtosahit karne ke liye sanrakshan ki neeti apnayi gayi. Arthvyavastha mein vibhinn prkar ke niyantra jaise muly niyantran, licensing, aayat pratibandh, kota adi deskhne ko milte the. Parnaamsvaroop desh ka vanchit arthik vikas nahi ho paaya.


Varsh 1991 mein bharat ki arthik sthiti nirashjanak thi. Desh mein videshi mudra bhandar ki kami, bhugtan asuntalan, bhadata hua rajkoshiy ghata aadi samasyaon ke karan bhartiy arthvyavastha buri tarah ladkhada gayi. Atah varsh 1991 se bharat mein arthik sudharon ki prakriya prarambh ki gayi jisse bharti vyavsayik paryavaran mein mahatvpoorn parivartan aaye. Nayi arthik neeti mein sarvjanik shetr ke mahatv ko kam karte hue niji shetr ko adhik bhadava diya gya hai. Aayat karon mein kami, rpatyaksh videshi nivesh ko protsahan, poonji bajar ka udarikaran, arthik sahayata mein kami aadi ke karan sanrakshit va niyamit arthvyavastha ne ab khuli va pratispardhi arthvyavastha ka roop se liye hai. Isi karan bhartiy prabandhakon ko ab nayi nayi chunotiyon ka saman karna pad raha hai. Is badle hue vatavaan mein keval vahi jeevit rah sakenge jinme pratispardha karne ki shamta hogi.